Critical Thinking in Nursing: Why It's Important and How to Improve
Critical thinking in nursing is a learned skill that increases the quality of care given to patients and improves outcomes. Find out why critical thinking is important and five ways to improve with examples of critical thinking in nursing.
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Why critical thinking in nursing is important
To be an effective nurse, it's important to step back and see the bigger picture. Critical thinking in nursing helps you analyze your patient's condition and current treatments to predict outcomes and identify potential issues. Hahnah Williams, Esq., RN, says, "Nurses who think critically do a better job of communicating across disciplines to ensure that all providers are aware of the patient's status, needs, and responses to treatment."
Being a strong critical thinker can greatly impact the experiences of your patients. Williams gives an example of this by saying, "a critically thinking nurse will hold a patient's blood pressure medicines and contact the physician when he or she notes that the patient's blood pressure is below an acceptable level." In this case, lack of critical thinking skills could put the patient in jeopardy by allowing the blood pressure to continue falling. "Nurses are often at the front line of patient care and serve as quarterback for patients with multi-disciplinary needs," Williams states.
1. Be aware of personal bias and assumptions
Human beings tend to allow personal bias to affect their decisions, and critical thinking in nursing is no exception. "Take a look at how you think," says Barb Lundy, author of Connections Count: Mastering the Human Side of Business. "Do hidden values or beliefs drive your behavior?" Some examples she gives of this is the belief that communicating with elderly patients is more difficult or that parents will make unreasonable demands for their children's care.
Making assumptions can also be an issue. "Medical treatment relies on educated assumptions," Lundy explains. "Assumptions that send problem solving off in the wrong direction come from not asking enough questions." She offers the following tips for countering this:
- Collaborate with your team
- Clarify any orders
- Ask for help when you aren't sure
- Offer to help others on your team
- Take time to communicate with your patients
It's important to make sure any actions you take are evidence-based and not influenced by your personal feelings, or as Lundy says, "Know where fact ends and opinion begins."
2. Learn from all available resources
Take time to read medical journals and engage in meaningful dialogue with your colleagues. Critical thinking in nursing requires a familiarity with a range of medical conditions and procedures. Actively brushing up on your knowledge will help you identify connections in your patients' care and know how to address any issues. Dr. Joyce Mikal-Flynn, a nurse practitioner and professor at the Sacramento State University School of Nursing, says, "On a regular basis, instead of spending [time] on Facebook or gossiping, I spend time with associates reviewing diagnoses and treatment and making certain I am utilizing the most discerning evidence and up-to-date treatments."
Mikal-Flynn claims these efforts strengthen the team and "directly adds to and enhances critical thinking abilities." Spending time communicating with your peers can give you different perspectives while strengthening the relationship between you and the attending physicians, and keeping up with the latest medical journals will keep your knowledge current and your skills ahead of the curve.
3. Reflect on each day
At the end of each shift, take some time to reflect on the day's events. There will always be situations you could have approached differently or better solutions to the problems you faced, so it's important to go through those things to see where you can improve. Mikal-Flynn recommends you take time to review "your clinical day, what went well, what would you change, what do you need to improve your professional behavior and become more sophisticated in your thinking process."
Going over your decisions and interactions lets you analyze them in a low-pressure setting with a critical eye. Finding things you could have done differently helps you make better decisions in the future when faced with similar scenarios. Lundy also says, "Have an evaluation tool that helps you assess your critical thinking growth and development." Evaluation tools for critical thinking in nursing are easy to find and can give you a big-picture view of the evolution of your skills.
4. Practice critical thinking daily
Critical thinking in nursing is a skill that can be learned and improved, so make sure you're enhancing your skills daily using the tools available to you. "Utilizing clinical debriefing is essential," says Mikal-Flynn. "It is a time to pull apart clinical decisions and add, subtract and enhance content."
You can also practice your critical thinking skills outside of the workplace. The Foundation for Critical Thinking, a 501(c)3 organization, offers nine suggestions to develop your critical thinking strategy that include daily, weekly and monthly goals for personal growth, along with tools and tips to create better self-awareness.
5. Maintain flexibility
Finally, a good critical thinker will maintain flexibility. Critical thinking in nursing requires the ability to adapt to changing situations and share information. "Plan ahead knowing your plans will need adjustment as things change," suggests Lundy. "Listen to alternative ideas and approaches and offer your innovative ideas for problem solving." Nursing is a fast-paced profession that requires a unique approach to each patient. With so many variables that affect each case, you have to be willing to consider different perspectives to serve your patients well.
Critical thinking in nursing is a valuable skill that can greatly improve the care you provide to your patients. If you take the time to follow these five tips to improve your critical thinking skills, your reward will be better outcomes for your patients and more confidence in your abilities as a nurse.